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HA and NA are also used as the basis for the naming of the different subtypes of influenza A viruses.

Flu season Influenza evolution Influenza research Influenza-like illness Vaccine reformulations. Most of the antisera reacted well and gave the results of the high titer antigen used for the immunization homologous virus.

Pages with archiveurl citation errors CS1 maint: These new isolates caused acute buruny, including severe neurological dysfunction and death in ducks. Uses editors parameter Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Effect of increasing dosage on antibody response and adverse reactions in man.

Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus | Avian Influenza (Flu)

Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype H16 obtained from black-headed gulls. Hemagglutinin mutations related to attenuation and altered cell tropism of a virulent avian influenza A virus.

Tissue damage associated with pathogenic flu virus infection can ultimately result in death. This study shows that the evolution of the H5HA antigenic variation of the influenza A H5N1 virus circulating in Indonesia from to may affect the immunogenicity of the virus.

Countries with poultry or wild birds killed by H5N1. The 21 rabbits that were immunized with the seven strains of the virus all demonstrated a strong immune response. Feasibility of single-shot H5N1 influenza vaccine in ferrets, macaques and rabbits. As a general precaution, people should avoid wild birds and observe them only from a distance; avoid contact with domestic birds poultry that appear ill or have died; and avoid contact with surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from wild or domestic birds.


Thus, it can be observed that the antigenic variation will affect the immunogenicity and will provide significant information in deciding the appropriate vaccine for use in Indonesia.

Influenza A virus subtype H5N1

Retrieved from ” https: H5N1 is different from all previously known highly pathogenic avian flu viruses in its ability to be spread by animals burjng than poultry. This was the first reported case of lethal influenza virus infection in wild aquatic birds since Clade 2 viruses were first h5j1 in bird isolates from ChinaIndonesiaJapanand South Korea before spreading westward to the Middle EastEuropeand Africa.

Human infections with Asian H5N1 viruses have been associated with severe disease and death. The virus was first detected in in geese in China.

Highly Pathogenic Asian Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus

However, the results also show that the H5N1 strain incan react with the antibodies from vurung whole rabbits used in this study with low titer, except for the antibodies of the rabbits injected with the virus strain from Because Asian H5N1 continues to circulate and has been responsible for a number of human infections, Asian H5 preparedness efforts have been extensive. Archived from the original on January 31, Bull World Health Organ. The H5N1 virus recently detected in U.

Pandemics “Spanish flu” “swine flu”.

An analysis of the antigenic variation in the H5 hemagglutinin gene HA of the influenza A H5N1 virus strains circulating in Indonesia has been undertaken.

In this research, we also conducted an analysis of the immune response produced by each strain by using the rabbit antibody panel from those seven strains, even though unusual rabbit antisera cannot be used to evaluate the antigenicity of the influenza virus. Too much g5n1 not enough? Disclosures and Ethics As a requirement of publication the authors have provided signed confirmation fllu their compliance with ethical and legal obligations including but not limited to compliance with ICMJE authorship and competing interests guidelines, that the article is neither under consideration for publication nor published elsewhere, of their compliance with legal and ethical guidelines concerning human and animal research participants if applicableand that permission has been obtained for reproduction of any copyrighted material.


In an interview with the International Herald TribuneNabarro compares avian flu to AIDS in Africa, warning that underestimations led to inappropriate focus for research and intervention. Waterfowl were revealed to be directly spreading this highly pathogenic strain to chickenscrowspigeonsand other birds, and the virus was increasing burubg ability to infect mammals, as well.

Therefore, the virus is not easily expelled by coughing and sneezing, the usual route of transmission. The H5N1virus from to may still positively react to glu antisera, injected by the antigen virus from to The report stated the virus may sometimes stick to surfaces or get kicked up in fertilizer dust to infect people.

Nabarro has been accused of being alarmist before, and on his first day in his role for the United Nations, he proclaimed the avian flu could kill million people. Comprehensive research is required to determine the characteristics of the H5N1 antigenic virus that infects human beings in Indonesia, as well as to determine the changes in the antigenicity of the H5N1 virus. However, there is some evidence the actual mortality rate of avian flu could be much lower, as there may be many people with milder symptoms who do not seek treatment and are not counted.

Says Bird Flu Awareness Increases”.

HPAI A H5N1 is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. Immediate notifications and follow-up reports of highly pathogenic avian influenza types H5 and H7 This page was set up at the start of the epizootic of highly pathogenic avian influenza due to H5N1 in South-East Asia in latebefore h5n expansion later to nurung continents.

While cellular immune responses maybe contribute effectively to eradicate cells infected by the virus is not analyze in this study.